Volleyball | History, Equipment & Terminologies



Volleyball is a popular team sport in which players compete on a rectangular court divided by a net. It's a fast-paced, dynamic game that calls for both skills and collaboration.


The History of Volleyball


Volleyball was first developed by William G. Morgan. After graduation from Springfield College in Massachusetts in 1895, William G. Morgan took a position as physical director of the Holyoke Young Men's Christian Association. The main activity was basketball, a relatively strenuous sport for the businessmen who used the facilities of the gymnasium. Some older men did not likeit because of the roughness of the game.

In 1896 at a YMCA Conference at Springfield College, Mr. Morgan publicized a new game. A net 6 feet 6 inches was stretched across the gymnasium. The main object of this new game was to hit the ball back and forth over the net with the hands. The game was started with a serve.The server was allowed three "outs" after which the opposite team was permitted to serve. To constitute an out, the ball - had to land out-of-bounds or hit the floor on a second bounce. The game was introduced as "Mintonette" but after watching the game, a faculty member of Springfield College, Dr. Alfred T. Halstead, recommended that the name be changed to volleyball. Shortly after the game's stretched across the gymnasium. The main object of this new game was to hit the ball back and forth over the net with the hands. The game was started with a serve. The server was allowed three "outs" after which the opposite team was permitted to serve. To constitute an out, the ball had to land out-of bounds or hit the floor on a second bounce. The game was introduced as "Mintonette but after watching the game, a faculty member of Springfield College, Dr. Alfred T. Halstead, recommended that the name be changed to volleyball. Shortly after the game's invention, Mr. Morgan drew up specifications for a special ball. By 1912, several rule changes had been made. Volleyball became very popular with schools, colleges, playgrounds and the armed forces. In 1929, the United States Volleyball Association was formed.

Volleyball as Team Sport

Volleyball is a team sport which is played in a court with a high net by two (2) teams with six (6) persons on each team court.

It may be played by all male, all female, or mixed teams with net height adjustments for boys, girls or age-group differences; and using a variety of playing surfaces; wood, rubberized materials, and or grass.  

The basic objective of the game is to keep the ball which is served over the net, from contacting the floor on your side and to return it so that it contacts the floor on the  opponents' side before they can return it. 

The team that fails to return the ball within the specific limits, loses the chance to serve and gives a point to the team's opponent.
In the game volleyball, the cooperation of the members of the team is important.



The Equipment Used in Volleyball and the Playing Area

Volleyball is an inexpensive activity. The player's equipment is minimal, requiring only rubbersoled shoes and possibly knee pads (individual preference) for hard playing surfaces.

The Ball

The ball is made of leather, 25 to 27 inches in circumference and weighs 260-280 grams, white color was used for sometimes until recently, the combination of white, blue and yellow colors was introduced.

The Net

The net is slightly longer than the width of the court, 32 feet is a common length, 36 inches in width from top to bottom made up of nylon cord. The net is made of heavy thread so that repeated contact of the ball on the net will not destroy the mesh. Nets should extend at least one foot on each side of the court (32 feet), have 4-inch-square mesh openings and a flexible cord or cable running through a 2-inch-wide white band at the top.

The Posts or Net Supports

Two posts or net supports are needed in this game. The net supports should be located at least 19 1/2 inches outside the sideline. They should be anchored (attach) securely enough to allow the net to be safely stretched tight without any sag (subside) below the required height. Supports with easily adjustable setting assist in quickly varying net height.

The Antennas

The antennae is a vertical side marker attached to the net directly above each side of the boundary line of the court. The antennas extend
upward from the net directly above the sideline to assist in determining whether the ball crossed the net within the court. It measures one (1) meter above the net. A ball contacting the antennae is out of play.

- it is a flexible rod, made of fibreglass or similar material and with stripes of contrasting colour, usually red and white.

- If there are no antennae, the referee will use their own judgment as to whether the ball is out.

The Court


The court is a rectangle measuring nine meters wide and nine (9) meters long. It is bounded by two lines, two inches wide. The court is divided into equal halves separated by a center line and net. A line three (3) meters parallel from the center line is called attack line. This line indicates the area where back row players are prohibited to spike and block.


The Players and Rotation

A team is made up of twelve (12) players but only six (6) players are allowed to play inside the playing court. There are three front row and three back row players.

When the ball is not on play, the players must remain in the proper rotation order, which establishes the sequential service order. Proper rotation order (6 on 6) establishes three front row and three back row players. The back row players may not legally enter the front court attack area to block or attack the ball over the net. When the ball is dead, players may not overlap with a player who is in an adjacent position. "Adjacent" refers to the player in the corresponding position on the opposite row. (Example: center back (MB) with center front (MF), plus the teammates next to that player on the same row. (Example: center(MB) with both left back (LB) and right back (RB) players.) The players all rotate one position clockwise following a rally.

The player who rotates to the right back position serves, or if at the start of the game is the first server. The serve is initiated from anywhere behind the end line of the court. The objective is to serve the ball across the net into the opponent's court. After the ball is served, players can cover any section of the court.



Terminologies

The terms in volleyball have been defined to make it easy for you to understand. Here they are.


ATTACK - any method used to return the ball across the net in an attempt to put the opponents at a disadvantage.
 
BLOCK - the process of intercepting the ball just before or as it crosses the net. A block is executed by any front row player.

DIG - an emergency pass, usually used to defend a hard driven attack.

DINK - a soft shot off the fingertips, used to lob the ball over the block.

DRIVE - an attack contacted in the center that attempts to hit the ball off the blocker's hands.

FAULT - an infraction of the rules.

FOREARM PASS - a pass made off the forearms.

FRONTCOURT - the playing area in which it is legal to block or attack.

KILL - an attack that cannot be returned directly as a result of that attack.

LOB - a soft attack that is contacted in the back bottom quarter of the ball, causing it to take an upward trajectory.

OVERHEAD PASS - a pass made by contact├şng the ball above the head with the finger pads.

POINT - a point is scored when the receiving team fails to return the ball legally to the opponent's court.

ROTATION - the shifting of the players clockwise upon gaining the ball from the opponents.

SERVE - the method of putting the ball in play over the net by striking it with the hand.

SET - the placement of the ball near the net to facilitate attacking.

SETTER - the player assigned to set the ball.

SPIKE - a ball hit its tip spin and a strong downward force into the opponent's court.

SPIKER - An offensive player who tries to hit the ball to end a play and ultimately earn a point for his team.

Volleyball is a popular recreational activity enjoyed by individuals of all ages and ability levels as well as a competitive sport. It encourages collaboration, communication, and physical wellness.

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